cؒe����l�����ҧ)�.�G�{�7s�����pS�lR6�'GJ.Uh�z:��ϝ;}����P ,���:z������Kwa�j��,��-�*��kb�'ҿJ�2�aܡ=b�堼.�!�ѿ,�ԕ,�)��(��y���������!2YJjf�>C������b�얆�I���������L�D.�c�xJ#��Si�&�τ`+iih��O���������(e�$��ha!l��Bh������9!����l&�N��8�� ����m� m��o��B6��>`H�Y��vWik5j+T�0$�� X�_&���P�f���sAD��DdpމD�LqYqqQGݍ�K��U��}������/"�]�G�����.��BB��� Į�vɎD����;��0�c�a�! �-q�(k�XYXTX=���03#�B�}�c6F��[�a5�Va�1�S�Lb;D���1œyN�#�pl{+ ��HA�`�(�hD�T(�ňZq)�@8�D1#����-$G*�gƞ� IwKnf ה~6:�q\�qQG�%�l�RB���w�]��S%E�dW���*���;d!�;��~6�,96��*�����o$#�QA��M �ʢx��F;&!$�a���t�s�����Nɭ�`w'��61�'τq��xv[y~�v���`��#d������U��QNU����7H �� C �� p�" �� %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz��������������������������������������������������������������������������� endobj It is postulated that reactive oxygen may be a signal for aging and its levels in tissues may determine the aging process and life span. Aging is associated with changes in dynamic biological, physiological, environmental, psychological, behavioral, and social processes. 0000003856 00000 n endstream Whereas there is a growing body of knowledge about the genomics of aging, what triggers the associated changes at the cellular or organ level is still a topic of debate. The activity theory, als o known as the implicit theory of aging, nor mal theory of ag ing, and lay theor y of aging, proposes that successful ageing oc curs w hen older adults s ta y active and Biological aging, referred to as senescence, is an exceedingly complex, genetically regulated, interactive process of change (Ostojić et al., 2009). objections, concludes that programmed aging is the correct theory beyond a reasonable doubt, and provides a summary of modern programmed aging theories as well as an analysis of the potential public health implications of adaptive theories. USA Deaths from all causes vs. age at death in 1933, 1999, and 2017 Legacy Aging Theories Many people believe that aging is simply the result of accumulating deterioration caused There are three main disciplinary‐based areas of aging theory: biological, psychological, and social. 0000034058 00000 n <> 8 0 obj Most theories can neither be proved nor disproved, but they are useful as points of reference. endobj ��=,VKX�q4�B�3��8"`� ��)�V����A՝��%yh`Ӥ3��W�3��ܶ�Kg2i�u�ȿ���û���3�.�/ \< Biological Theories of Aging. The theory is that highly reactive oxygen-derived sub-stances (free radicals) result in the accumulation of protein, lipids, and DNA damage as a result of hypothermia and metabolism. <>/OutputIntents[<>] /Metadata 1380 0 R>> 0000002294 00000 n 0000022331 00000 n 0000000896 00000 n Some important problems are identified with each of the theories when the criteria of intersubjectivity of meaning, testability, and empirical adequacy are utilized in the evaluation process. ?�����#SHԄ^�ꎶ3m�����Jwz�. <> 0000017810 00000 n endobj <> 0000003359 00000 n endobj The free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging proposes that the accumulation of oxidative cellular damage is a major contributor to the aging process and a key determinant of longevity of the species. stream ˚ s oeuce s f shi eoeorn t changes in behavior, personality, and attitude as we age. Importance of Social Theories of Aging • In contrast to our personal observation about age changes, scientific approach to theory development is a systematic attempt to explain why and how an age-associated change or event occurs • Theory-building: cumulative development of explaining and understand observations and findings It the normal aging process. 0000003167 00000 n 0000033435 00000 n Table 2.1 Biological Theories of Aging Theory Tenet Immune system theory (organ system based) As individuals age, the immune system becomes less functional, thereby leading to breakdown. Because an organism invests resources into reproduction, over time mutations and other cellular damage accu- �P�q&�^���wy����N�C���Ǡ5�Ș��r� �`��2 �M��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��( ��� ����T��Mr� �W���w���t����%㩋��l��YXq�g��gi��.ne�����Y'�g2I,�Y���$�I�$��. <> Theories in the conflict perspective concentrate on how elders, as a group, are at odds with other groups in society. ˚ e authors propose that aging is a lifelong process characterized by transitions. Postulate four: The individual’s life is punctuated by ego changes. 1 0 obj h�b```b``9���� 1�A��؀����G����EmL�o����gc�r�5��r���E,3�kٝ,Nٹ�2�$�uE�.bk۝3����y">�+w̛�Bf��̹���]N�/��Bf��y�_�I�=Gu��y�1���l�^QW��ݶ�*ͬ�R1饿��I��5{�9�]&��\d{�7��J�],��%���,y�y����3 W�% F�����+��:�L� ��&�Khx4�e��:]�!|��}�Cd��[�5I20�3E2�cX����Mȅq5�\�/���9�0�a�d7�Y������v�t���y&��k~0�`�a��`���$�̾^��y&?��|��Y�~\�L�,�bF���@�����r3��\������- ^` x˘W endstream endobj 379 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[115 236]/Length 31/Size 351/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream 0000003473 00000 n ˚ e earliest theories on aging came from the psychosocial disciplines (see Table 3 - 1 ). 0000001600 00000 n
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